Paul John Manafort Jr.|
April 1, 1949
New Britain, Connecticut, U.S.
|Alma mater||Georgetown University (BS, JD)|
Paul John Manafort Jr. (born April 1, 1949) is an American lawyer, lobbyist and political consultant. He served as campaign manager for the presidential campaign of Donald Trump in 2016. He was previously an adviser to the U.S. presidential campaigns of Republicans Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and Bob Dole. In 1980 Manafort co-founded the Washington, DC-based lobbying firm Black, Manafort & Stone, along with principals Charles R. Black Jr., and Roger J. Stone. In 1984 it was renamed Black, Manafort, Stone and Kelly (BMSK) & associates, after Peter G. Kelly was recruited.:124
Manafort often lobbied on behalf of controversial foreign leaders such as Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych, dictators Ferdinand Marcos and Mobutu Sese Seko, and guerrilla leader Jonas Savimbi. Lobbying to serve the interests of foreign governments requires registration with the Justice Department under the Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA); however, as of June 2, 2017, Manafort had not registered. On June 27 he retroactively registered as a foreign agent.
Manafort is under investigation by multiple federal agencies. The FBI has had an active criminal investigation on him since 2014 regarding business dealings while he was lobbying for Ukraine. He may also be a subject of an FBI counterintelligence probe looking into possible collusion between the Russian government and associates of Trump.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Career
- 2.1 Political activities
- 2.2 Lobbying career
- 2.2.1 Association with Jonas Savimbi
- 2.2.2 Lobbying for other foreign leaders
- 2.2.3 Involvement in the Karachi Affair
- 2.2.4 Association with Pakistani Inter-Service Intelligence Agency
- 2.2.5 HUD scandal
- 2.2.6 Lobbying for Viktor Yanukovych and involvements in Ukraine
- 2.2.7 Registering as a foreign agent
- 3 Homes and home loans
- 4 Investigations
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Early life and education[edit | edit source]
Manafort was born April 1, 1949, in New Britain, Connecticut, the son of Antoinette Marie (née Cifalu) and Paul J. Manafort, Sr. (1923–2013). His grandfather was an Italian who immigrated to the U.S. and founded construction company Manafort Brothers. His father served with the US Army combat engineers in World War II and was mayor of New Britain from 1965 to 1971.
Career[edit | edit source]
Political activities[edit | edit source]
In 1976, Manafort was the delegate-hunt coordinator for eight states for the President Ford Committee; the overall Ford delegate operation was run by James A. Baker III. Between 1978 and 1980, Manafort was the southern coordinator for Ronald Reagan's presidential campaign, and the deputy political director at the Republican National Committee. After Reagan's election in November 1980, he was appointed Associate Director of the Presidential Personnel Office at the White House. In 1981 he was nominated to the Board of Directors of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation.
Chairman of Donald Trump's 2016 United States Presidential campaign[edit | edit source]
In March 2016, he joined the presidential campaign of Donald Trump to lead Trump's "delegate-corralling" efforts. In April 2016, Trump fired campaign manager Corey Lewandowski and promoted Manafort to the position. Manafort gained control of the daily operations of the campaign as well as an expanded $20 million budget, hiring decisions, advertising, and media strategy.
In August 2016, Manafort's connections to former Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych and his Party of Regions drew national attention in the USA, where it was reported that Manafort may have illegally received $12.7 million in off-the-books funds from the Party of Regions. On August 17, 2016, Donald Trump received his first security briefing. Also, on August 17, 2016, the New York Times reported on an internal staff memorandum from Manafort stating that Manafort would "remain the campaign chairman and chief strategist, providing the big-picture, long-range campaign vision". However, two days later, Trump announced his acceptance of Manafort's resignation from the campaign after Stephen Bannon and Kellyanne Conway took on senior leadership roles within that campaign.
Lobbying career[edit | edit source]
In 1980 Manafort was a founding partner of Washington, DC-based lobbying firm Black, Manafort & Stone, along with principals Charles R. Black Jr., and Roger J. Stone. After Peter G. Kelly was recruited the name of the firm was changed to Black, Manafort, Stone and Kelly (BMSK) in 1984.:124
Association with Jonas Savimbi[edit | edit source]
In 1985, Manafort's firm, BMSK, signed a $600,000 contract with Jonas Savimbi, the leader of the Angolan rebel group UNITA, to refurbish Savimbi's image in Washington and secure financial support on the basis of his anti-communism. BMSK arranged for Savimbi to attend events at the American Enterprise Institute (where Jeane Kirkpatrick gave him a laudatory introduction), The Heritage Foundation, and Freedom House; in the wake of the campaign Congress approved hundreds of millions of dollars in covert American aid to Savimbi's group. Allegedly, Manafort's continuing lobbying efforts helped preserve the flow of money to Savimbi several years after the Soviet Union ceased its involvement in the Angolan conflict, forestalling peace talks.
Lobbying for other foreign leaders[edit | edit source]
Manafort's firm, BMSK, accepted $950,000 yearly to lobby for Ferdinand Marcos. He was also involved in lobbying for Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaïre, securing a 1 million dollar annual contract in 1989, and attempted to recruit Siad Barre of Somalia as a client. His firm also lobbied on behalf of the governments of the Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Kenya (earning between $660,000 and $750,000 each year between 1991 and 1993), and Nigeria ($1 million in 1991). These activities led Manafort's firm to be listed amongst the top five lobbying firms receiving money from human-rights abusing regimes in the Center for Public Integrity report "The Torturer's Lobby".
Involvement in the Karachi Affair[edit | edit source]
Manafort wrote the campaign strategy for Edouard Balladur in the 1995 French elections, and was paid indirectly. The money, at least $200,000, was transferred to him through his friend, Lebanese arms-dealer Abdul Rahman al-Assir, from middle-men fees paid for arranging the sale of three French Template:Sclass-s to Pakistan, in a scandal known as the Karachi Affair.
Association with Pakistani Inter-Service Intelligence Agency[edit | edit source]
Manafort received $700,000 from the Kashmiri American Council between 1990 and 1994, supposedly to promote the plight of the Kashmiri people. However, an FBI investigation revealed the money was actually from Pakistan's Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI) agency as part of a disinformation operation to divert attention from terrorism. A former Pakistani ISI official claimed Manafort was aware of the nature of the operation. While producing a documentary as part of the deal, Manafort interviewed several Indian officials while pretending to be a CNN reporter.
HUD scandal[edit | edit source]
In the late 1980s, Manafort was criticized for using his connections at HUD to ensure funding for a $43 million rehabilitation of dilapidated housing in Seabrook, N.J. Manafort's firm received a $326,000 fee for its work in getting HUD approval of the grant largely through personal influence with Deborah Gore Dean, an executive assistant to former HUD Secretary Samuel R. Pierce, Jr.
Lobbying for Viktor Yanukovych and involvements in Ukraine[edit | edit source]
Manafort also worked as an adviser on the Ukrainian presidential campaign of Viktor Yanukovych (and his Party of Regions during the same time span) from December 2004 until the February 2010 Ukrainian presidential election even as the U.S. government (and US Senator John McCain) opposed Yanukovych because of his ties to Russia's leader Vladimir Putin. Manafort was hired to advise Yanukovych months after massive street demonstrations known as the Orange Revolution overturned Yanukovych's victory in the 2004 presidential race. Borys Kolesnikov, Yanukovich’s campaign manager, said the party hired Manafort after identifying organizational and other problems in the 2004 elections, in which it was advised by Russian strategists. Manafort rebuffed U.S. Ambassador William Taylor when the latter complained he was undermining U.S. interests in Ukraine. According to a 2008 U.S. Justice Department annual report, Manafort’s company received $63,750 from Yanukovych's Party of Regions over a six-month period ending on March 31, 2008, for consulting services. In 2010, under Manafort's tutelage, the opposition leader put the Orange Revolution on trial, campaigning against its leaders' management of a weak economy. Returns from the presidential election gave Yanukovych a narrow win over Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko, a leader of the 2004 demonstrations. Yanukovych owed his comeback in Ukraine's presidential election to a drastic makeover of his political persona and, people in his party say, that makeover was engineered in part by his American consultant, Manafort.
In 2007 and 2008 Manafort was involved in investment projects with Russian oligarch Oleg Deripaska (the acquisition of a Ukrainian telecoms company) and Ukrainian oligarch Dmytro Firtash (redevelopment of the site of the former Drake Hotel in New York City). The Associated Press has reported that Manafort negotiated a $10 million annual contract with Deripaska to promote Russian interests in politics, business, and media coverage in Europe and the United States, starting in 2005.
In 2013 Yanukovych became the main target of the Euromaidan protests. After the February 2014 Ukrainian revolution (the conclusion of Euromaidan) Yanukovych fled to Russia. On 17 March 2014, the day after the Crimean status referendum, Yanukovych became one of the first eleven persons who were placed under executive sanctions on the Specially Designated Nationals List (SDN) by President Obama, freezing his assets in the US and banning him from entering the United States.[lower-alpha 1]
Manafort then returned to Ukraine in September 2014 to become an advisor to Yanukovych’s former head of the Presidential Administration of Ukraine Serhiy Lyovochkin. In this role he was asked to assist in rebranding Yanukovych's Party of Regions. Instead, he argued to help stabilize Ukraine, Manafort was instrumental in creating a new political party called Opposition Bloc. According to Ukrainian political analyst Mikhail Pogrebinsky, "He thought to gather the largest number of people opposed to the current government, you needed to avoid anything concrete, and just become a symbol of being opposed". According to Manafort, he has not worked in Ukraine since the October 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election. However, according to Ukrainian border control entry data, Manafort traveled to Ukraine several times after that election, all the way through late 2015. According to The New York Times, his local office in Ukraine closed in May 2016. According to Politico, by then Opposition Bloc had already stopped payments for Manafort and this local office.
Ukrainian government National Anti-Corruption Bureau studying secret documents claimed in August 2016 to have found handwritten records that show $12.7 million in cash payments designated for Manafort, although they had yet to determine if he had received the money. These undisclosed payments were from the pro-Russian political party Party of Regions, of the former president of Ukraine. This payment record spans from 2007 to 2012. Manafort’s lawyer, Richard A. Hibey, said Manafort didn’t receive “any such cash payments” as described by the anti-corruption officials. The Associated Press reported on August 17, 2016 that Manafort secretly routed at least $2.2 million in payments to two prominent Washington lobbying firms in 2012 on Party of Regions' behalf, and did so in a way that effectively obscured the foreign political party's efforts to influence U.S. policy. Associated Press noted that under federal law, U.S. lobbyists must declare publicly if they represent foreign leaders or their political parties and provide detailed reports about their actions to the Justice Department, which Manafort reportedly did not do. The lobbying firms unsuccessfully lobbied U.S. Congress to reject a resolution condemning the jailing of Yanukovych's main political rival, Yulia Tymoshenko.
According to alleged leaked text messages between his daughters Manafort was also one of the proponents of violent removal of the Euromaidan protesters which resulted in police shooting dozens of people during 2014 Hrushevskoho Street riots. In one of the messages his daughter writes that his "strategy that was to cause that, to send those people out and get them slaughtered".
Manafort has rejected questions about whether Russian-Ukrainian operative Konstantin Kilimnik, with whom he consulted regularly, might be in league with Russian intelligence.
Registering as a foreign agent[edit | edit source]
Lobbying for foreign countries requires registration with the Justice Department under the Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA). Manafort did not do so at the time of his lobbying. In April 2017 a Manafort spokesman said Manafort was planning to file the required paperwork; however, according to Associated Press reporters, as of June 2, 2017, Manafort had not yet registered. On June 27 he filed to be retroactively registered as a foreign agent. Among other things, he disclosed that he made more than $17 million between 2012 and 2014 working for a pro-Russian political party in Ukraine.
Homes and home loans[edit | edit source]
Manafort’s work in Ukraine coincided with the purchase of at least four prime pieces of real estate in the United States, worth a combined $11 million, between 2006 and early 2012.
Since 2012, Manafort has taken out seven home equity loans worth approximately $19.2 million on three separate New York-area properties he owns through holding companies registered to him and his son-in-law Jeffrey Yohai, a real estate investor. In 2016, Yohai declared Chapter 11 bankruptcy for LLCs tied to four residential properties; Manafort holds a $2.7 million claim on one of the properties.
As of February 2017, Manafort had about $12 million in home equity loans outstanding. For one home, loans of $6.6 million exceeded the value of that home; the loans are from the Federal Savings Bank, whose CEO, Steve Calk, was a campaign supporter of Donald Trump and is a member of Trump's Economic Advisory Council.
Investigations[edit | edit source]
The FBI reportedly began a criminal investigation into Manafort in 2014, shortly after Yanukovich was deposed. That investigation predated the 2016 election by several years and is ongoing. In addition, an FBI counterintelligence probe began looking into possible collusion between the Russian government and associates of Trump in July 2016.
On January 19, 2017, the eve of the Trump's presidential inauguration, it was reported that Manafort was under active investigation by multiple federal agencies including the Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Director of National Intelligence and the financial crimes unit of the Treasury Department. Investigations were said to be based on intercepted Russian communications as well as financial transactions.
In May 2017, in response to a request of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI), Manafort submitted over "300 pages of documents" "included drafts of speeches, calendars and notes from his time on the campaign" to the Committee "related to its investigation of Russian election meddling", according to a source familiar with the Senate probe.
Special Counsel Robert Mueller, who was appointed on May 17, 2017 by the Justice Department to oversee the investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections and related matters, took over the existing criminal probe involving Manafort. 
See also[edit | edit source]
Notes[edit | edit source]
- The individuals on the first list of United States sanctions for individuals or entities involved in the Ukraine crisis are Sergey Aksyonov, Sergey Glazyev, Andrei Klishas, Vladimir Konstantinov, Valentina Matviyenko, Victor Medvedchuk, Yelena Mizulina, Dmitry Rogozin, Leonid Slutsky, Vladislav Surkov, and Victor Yakunovich.
References[edit | edit source]
- Edsall, Thomas B. (May 14, 2012). "The Lobbyist in the Gray Flannel Suit". The New York Times Blog. The Opinion Page. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- "A Political Power Broker". The New York Times. Washington. June 20, 1989. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- "Registration with the Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA)" (PDF). Department of Justice. August 1982. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- Choate, Pat (1990). Agents of Influence. Simon and Schuster. p. 307. ISBN 0671743392.
- Mufson, Steven; Hamburger, Tom (April 26, 2016). "Inside Trump adviser Manafort’s world of politics and global financial dealmaking". Washington Post. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- Stone, Peter (April 27, 2016). "Trump's new right-hand man has history of controversial clients and deals". the Guardian. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- Lake, Eli (April 13, 2016). "Trump Just Hired His Next Scandal". Bloomberg View. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- Tucker, Eric; Horwitz, Jeff (June 2, 2017). "Robert Mueller's Russia Investigation Takes Over Paul Manafort Case". Time via AP. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- "Exclusive: DoJ won't say if Sessions is recused on Manafort". MSNBC. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
- "AP Sources: Manafort tied to undisclosed foreign lobbying". Associated Press. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
- Hamburger, Tom. "Former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort files as foreign agent for Ukraine work". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-06-28.
- Reagan, Ronald (May 13, 1981)."Nomination of Paul J. Manafort, Jr., To Be a Member of the Board of Directors of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation." In Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. Hosted online by the University of California, Santa Barbara, CA. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- "Paul J. Manafort" (January 25, 2013). Obituary by Hartford Courant Legacy.com Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- "Antoinette (Cifalu) Manafort's Obituary on Hartford Courant". Legacy.com. March 18, 2003. Retrieved August 2, 2016.
- Shawn Tully (August 15, 2016). "5 Things You Need to Know About Paul Manafort". Fortune.
- Peters, Jeremy W. (April 18, 2016). "Potential G.O.P. Convention Fight Puts Older Hands in Sudden Demand". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
- Savransky, Rebecca (March 28, 2016). "Trump hires strategist Paul Manafort". TheHill. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- Mosk, Matthew (June 26, 2008). "Top McCain Adviser Has Found Success Mixing Money, Politics". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- Burns, Alexander; Haberman, Maggie (March 28, 2016). "Donald Trump Hires Paul Manafort to Lead Delegate Effort". The New York Times - First Draft. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- Sherman, Gabriel (April 19, 2016). "How Paul Manafort Took Over the Trump Campaign". New York Magazine. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
- Emily Flitter and Emily Stephenson (June 21, 2016). "Trump fires campaign manager in shakeup for election push". Reuters. Retrieved August 2, 2016.
- Haberman, Maggie; Martin, Jonathan (August 19, 2016). "Paul Manafort Quits Donald Trump’s Campaign After a Tumultuous Run". New York Times. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- Andrew E. Kramer, Mike McIntire, and Barry Meier (August 14, 2016). "Secret Ledger in Ukraine Lists Cash for Donald Trump’s Campaign Chief". NYT. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
- Dilanian, Ken; Windrem, Robert (August 17, 2016). "Donald Trump Receives First Intelligence Briefing". NBC News. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- Jonathan Martin; Jim Rutenberg; Maggie Haberman (August 17, 2016). "Donald Trump appoints media firebrand to run campaign". New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- McCaskill, Nolan (19 August 2016). "Paul Manafort resigns from Trump campaign". Politico. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- "Trump campaign chair Paul Manafort resigns". NPR. August 19, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- "Registration with the Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA)" (PDF). Department of Justice. August 1982. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- Vogel, Kenneth P. (June 10, 2016). "Paul Manafort’s Wild and Lucrative Philippine Adventure: as Ferdinand Marcos used his fortune to cling to power, he found an ally in Trump’s campaign chairman". Politico. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- Foer, Franklin (April 28, 2016). "The Quiet American". Slate.com. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- "Paul Manafort’s Wild and Lucrative Philippine Adventure". Politico. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
- "Black, Manafort, Stone and Kelly, Public Affairs Company document for U.S. Department of Justice" (PDF). U.S. Foreign Agents Registration Act website (FARA.gov). Retrieved August 15, 2016.
- "Mobutu in Search of an Image Boost". Washington Post. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
- "En Afrique, les liaisons dangereuses de Paul Manafort, directeur de campagne de Trump". Le Monde. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- "Trump chair Paul Manafort: 'mercenary' lobbyist and valuable asset". The Guardian. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- Brogan, Pamela (1992). The Torturer's Lobby. How Human Rights-Abusing Nations Are Represented in Washington (PDF). Washington DC: The Center for Public Integrity. p. 7. ISBN 0-9629012-9-6. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- "US Consultant Admits Role in Karachi Affair". France24. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- Isikoff, Michael. "Top Trump aide lobbied for Pakistani spy front". Yahoo.com. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- Drinkard, Jim (December 4, 1994). "Public-Relations Ethics Questioned as Some Agents Pose as Journalists : Information: Deception violates PR code, but critics say it's common nonetheless.". Associated Press. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- Michael Riley Where Were the Media on HUD?, Time Magazine July 24, 1989
- Eaton, William J. (June 21, 1989). "GOP Consultant Admits Using Influence to Obtain HUD Grant but Defends Action". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- Paul Manafort, Donald Trump’s top adviser, and his ties to pro-Russian politicians in Ukraine, PolitiFact.com (May 2, 2016)
- Levy, Clifford J. (September 30, 2007). "Ukrainian Prime Minister Reinvents Himself". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- "How Paul Manafort Wielded Power in Ukraine Before Advising Donald Trump". The New York Times. July 31, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- Boudreaux, Richard (February 9, 2010). "Candidates Sought Guidance From American Consultants". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- "Paid advisers descend on candidates, nation". Kyiv Post. November 24, 2009. Archived from the original on November 24, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- How Trump's campaign chief got a strongman elected president of Ukraine The Guardian (16 August 2016)
- Horwitz & Day (March 22, 2017). "Trump campaign chief linked to Putin interests". Associated Press. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
- "Profile: Viktor Yanukovych", BBC News (regularly updated)
Ukrainian MPs vote to oust President Yanukovych, BBC News (February 22, 2014)
- Logiurato, Brett (17 March 2014). "Obama Just Announced Sanctions Against 7 Russian 'Cronies'". Business Insider. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- "Ukraine and Russia Sanctions". United States State Department. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- "Fact Sheet: Ukraine-Related Sanctions". The White House: Office of the Press Secretary. March 17, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- "Executive Order - Blocking Property of Additional Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine". The White House: Office of the Press Secretary. March 20, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- "Treasury Sanctions Russian Officials, Members Of The Russian Leadership’s Inner Circle, And An Entity For Involvement In The Situation In Ukraine". United States Department of the Treasury.
- "Issuance of a new Ukraine-related Executive Order; Ukraine-related Designations". United States Department of the Treasury. March 17, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- "Ukraine-related Designations". United States Department of the Treasury. March 20, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- "Specially Designated Nationals List (SDN)". United States Department of the Treasury.
- Shuklin, Peter (March 21, 2014). "Putin's inner circle: who got in a new list of US sanctions". liga.net. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- President of The United States (March 10, 2014). "Ukraine EO13660" (PDF). Federal Register. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- President of The United States (March 19, 2014). "Ukraine EO13661" (PDF). Federal Register. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- Manafort blasts NYT, denies he accepted Ukraine cash payments, Politico (15 August 2016)
- Manafort’s man in Kiev, Politico (August 19 2016)
- Maksym Sydorzhevskyj; Markian Ostaptschuk (July 28, 2016). "Trump campaign manager Manafort has Ukrainian history". Deutsche Welle.
- "Trump aides covertly fought freeing of Ukraine prisoner". Retrieved 2016-08-24.
- CNN, Simon Ostrovsky (March 11, 2017). "Ukraine seeks probe of hacked Manafort texts". CNN. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
- Kenneth P. Vogel and David Stern (March 8, 2017). "Authorities looked into Manafort protégé; An associate of an ex-Trump campaign chairman is suspected of connections to Russian intelligence.". politico.com. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
- "Former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort files as foreign agent for Ukraine work". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
- Meyer, Theodoric (June 27, 2017). "Manafort registers as foreign agent". Politico. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- Perez, Evan; Devine, Curt (June 28, 2017). "Former Trump campaign chairman registers as a foreign agent". CNN. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
- Silverstein, Ken; Weinstein, Adam (August 17, 2016). "How Trump Aide Paul Manafort Got Ridiculously Wealthy While Aiding a Ukrainian Strongman". Fusion. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
- Dayen, David (February 24, 2017). "Former Trump Campaign Manager Paul Manafort Took Out $19 Million in Puzzling Real Estate Loans". The Intercept. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
- Chen, Cathaleen (December 23, 2016). "Paul Manafort's son-in-law files for bankruptcy protection for four LA properties". The Real Deal (Los Angeles). Retrieved February 24, 2017.
- Porter, Tom (June 3, 2017). "Trump-Russia investigation expands to take in criminal probes on Manafort and Flynn-Turkey". Newsweek. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- Gurman, Sadie; Tucker, Eric; Horwitz, Jeff (June 2, 2017). "AP report: Special counsel’s Russia investigation includes former Trump campaign chair". PBS via AP. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- Goldman, Michael S. Schmidt, Matthew Rosenberg, Adam; Apuzzo, Matt (January 19, 2017). "Intercepted Russian Communications Part of Inquiry Into Trump Associates". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- Greenwood, Max (January 19, 2017). "Manafort part of intelligence review of intercepted Russian communications". The Hill. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
- Perez, Evan (May 23, 2017). "Manafort turns over hundreds of pages of documents to Senate intelligence". CNN. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- Barrett, Devlin; Entous, Adam; Nakashima, Ellen; Horwitz, Sari (June 14, 2017). "Special counsel is investigating Trump for possible obstruction of justice, officials say". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 15, 2017.